A Catholic Jew Pontificates

I love opinionated non-PC people. This blog is to vent my opinions on life, the universe and everything. Which is 42 which in gematria is "My Heart" (LBY) according to Rabbi Abulafia. The Divine Heart is the centre of everything.

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

St. Paul and the Letter of Philemon: A Hellenistic Jewish Context

Philemon is the shortest letter of St Paul in the Bible however it can act as a door to understanding the much larger corpus of the Pauline Literature in its biblical and historical context. All Scripture including Philemon can be read at many levels and thus one can gain insights that relate to contemporary people and their modern concerns. However in order to read Scripture at different levels one needs to understand the literal historical level or sense first. While this historical level is primary it is not necessarily the most important or meaningful sense.[1] We all read Paul according to our own understanding or interpretation of the biblical and historical evidence and from one’s own world view and culture.

In recent years there has arisen a school of theology that is given the name of the ‘New Perspectives on Paul’ in which reference to the Jewish context of Paul is central. In fact Dunn calls this new perspective a quantum shift.[2] I would suggest that this occurred partly due to the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1948. The previous theological approach used by many Protestants was of the Higher Critical School which in the 20th century was taken on by many Catholic scholars. This German theology was at its very core anti-Semitic and anti-Jewish according to a number of authors.[3] These insights of the ‘New Perspective on Paul’ have caused many to not see Paul as an antinomian rebel but as one faithful to the Torah as represented in Acts 21. Rabbi Jacob Emden (1697-1776) a leader among the Litvak Jews of Eastern Europe in his famous letter proposed an interpretation of Paul as a faithful Torah observant Rabbi who only taught that Gentiles didn’t need to be Jewishly Torah Observant but insisted on full Torah observance for the circumcised.[4][5] This was demonstrated when Paul circumcised Timothy because he had a Jewish mother.[6] Paul taught in Galatians 5:3 that one who was circumcised was obligated to keep the whole Torah.

There are many diverse opinions among scholars of the context of Paul’s Letter to Philemon. However almost everyone is agreed that the letter was originally written in Greek. Certain puns or word plays in the Greek make this clear.[7] There is a word play or pun on Onesimus’ name, which means useful, in verse 11. Marchal perceives a more sexual connotation to the term ‘useful’ in regards to the use of slaves for sexual pleasure. Is Paul by the use of this pun letting Philemon know that Onesimus has revealed something more shocking in their relationship than just simple master and slave?[8] Is this Paul’s version of Jesus writing in the sand?[9]

Even though the letter is written in Greek one of a Jewish background can’t help but perceive the Jewish expressions behind the Greek words. An example is in verse 7 where a Jewish reader may detect simcha gedola (much joy) and Chizzuk (encouragement/strength) with its deeper Hebrew meaning under the Greek equivalents. Is this because Paul comes from Tarsus and as well as being a Pharisee he is also an educated Hellenistic Jew? It is also possible that Paul speaks to them in this manner because Philemon, Apphia and Archippus are Hellenistic Jews too. Eastern Orthodox Tradition holds that Philemon, Apphia and Archippus were of the seventy apostles (Shelikhim) and thus must have been Jewish.[10] This tradition holds that Apphia was the wife of Philemon and that with Archippus they went as Shelikhim to evangelise Colossae where Archippus became the Bishop (Parnas Hegemon). These traditions also say that Philemon became the Bishop of Gaza in Palestine. Other scholars think that Archippus was the son of Philemon and Apphia. If they were Hellenised Jews then this would explain Paul’s expectation that Philemon knows the obligations of the Torah.[11]  Paul doesn’t want to appeal to what is “anekon”( דזדקן righteous according to the Torah) but to love (agape/ahavah).[12] However by even mentioning “anekon” he has indeed reminded Philemon of his moral duty (chovah musarit) according to the Torah.

Most scholars believe that the Letter was written around 60-62 AD from Rome where Paul was imprisoned. Others hold that it was written almost a decade earlier and possibly from Ephesus.[13]  While most believe that Paul was actually in prison others believe the term ‘Prisoner of Jesus Christ’ has a more spiritual rather than a literal meaning.  It is believed by most to be addressed to the Church in Colossae but it is also possible it was a personal letter that was only addressed to the three Shelikhim especially if the allusion to a sinful[14] homosexual relationship was involved as suggested by Marchal. It may have later after the death of its protagonists were dead been then read to the wider Church. In that case the mention of the “Church in your House” may refer to Archippus rather than to Philemon.[15]

The structure of this letter has also been the subject of intense discussion by scholars. Some believe that this is a letter of recommendation of the kind that a patron wrote on behalf of another that uses deliberative rhetoric. Deliberative rhetoric is that which was used when writing to convince someone to change their mind or actions. FF Church writes an interesting article about the use of rhetoric in the context of the letter to Philemon.[16] Osiek states that it is impossible to separate the indicative from the imperative in this letter.[17] Others have questioned this rhetoric approach as they don’t think it reveals the purpose of the letter. Could this be due to the hidden purpose suggested by Marchal? Is this a letter that is trying to encourage repentance by a prominent and influential leader in the Church? That Philemon is a saint of the Church and went on to be a Bishop in Gaza suggests that Paul’s purpose was achieved.[18] Frilingos stresses the use of familial language and metaphors in the letter. He sees this as part of Paul’s purpose to challenge and displace Philemon’s claim of power over his slave by the use of this familial imagery. [19] Elliot sees this as a rhetoric of tact that Paul uses to manipulate others in a demonstration of his own power and authority.[20]

However some scholars don’t believe that Onesimus is an actual slave but someone Philemon was treating like a slave. And there are many other scenarios that could be proposed. Many people have focused on the issue of slavery and perhaps read into the text the concerns of later Christians. Others have focused on the message of love, mercy and kindness that Paul seems to be proposing to those who have power over the lives of others. This letter may demonstrate that Paul practised tough love in that he lovingly corrects, admonishes and lures his fellow believers into behaving in a more Christ-like manner rooted in love. Dunham perceives the Letter as providing a model of transformation of life in the resurrected Messiah.[21]

There are many open questions regarding this Letter and its context and background, thus certain opinions cannot be held dogmatically and one needs to be open to further reflection and the insights of further scholarship. In such a small essay one cannot cover the issues presented by Paul’s Letter to Philemon adequately but I have endeavoured to briefly touch on points of interest which need further explication. At this point I incline towards believing that Philemon, Apphia and Archippus are Hellenistic Jews and that Paul and Timothy are writing to them from Rome in the early 60’s from prison. I also would at this stage accept the more traditional interpretation that Onesimus as an escaped slave who Paul is seeking to reconcile with his master and I think the Marchal’s interpretation about a sexual “usefulness” may have some merit that may explain some of the question marks about the true purpose of the letter raised by some scholars. If Paul is dealing with a more serious and scandalous situation among the higher leaders he may be using his Messiah’s advice of being as gentle as a dove and as cunning as a serpent[22] in order to correct and reconcile sinners in the Church (Kehilla). Philemon himself may be fond of Greek rhetorical approaches and Paul may be displaying his policy of being all things to all men in order to win them back (in this case) to a Christ-like way of life[23] by writing in a style that Philemon would appreciate. I think that the aspect of the New Perspectives on Paul that emphasises the Jewish context is opening fresh insights to Paul’s writings and ideas in general and to Philemon in particular.


Brown, Raymond Edward, Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland Edmund Murphy, eds. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Prentice Hall, 1990.

Church, F. Forrester. "Rhetorical structure and design in Paul's letter to Philemon." Harvard Theological Review 71, no. 1-2 (1978): 17-33.

Dunham, Robert E. “Between text and sermon: Philemon 1:1-25”. Interpretation: A Journal of    Bible and Theology; Richmond Vol. 52, Iss. 2,  (Apr 1998): 191-194.

Dunn, James DG. "The new perspective on Paul." HTS Theological Studies 64, no. 4 (2008): 1956-           1958 .

Elliott, Scott S. “‘Thanks, but no thanks’”: Tact, Persuasion and the Negotiation of Power in Paul’s             Letter to Philemon.” New Testament Studies 57 (2011): 51-64.

Falk, Harvey (Rabbi). Jesus the Pharisee: A new look at the Jewishness of Jesus. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2003.

Frilingos, Chris. “‘For My Child, Onesimus’: Paul and Domestic Power in Philemon." Journal of Biblical Literature 119, no. 1 (2000): 91-104.

Marchal, Joseph A. "The Usefulness of an Onesimus: The Sexual Use of Slaves and Paul's Letter to Philemon." Journal of Biblical Literature 130, no. 4 (2011): 749-770.

Maciejko, Pawel. The mixed multitude: Jacob Frank and the Frankist movement, 1755-1816.        University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.

OrthodoxWiki. Apostle Philemon

Osiek, Carolyn. "Philemon." In The Catholic Study Bible. Oxford Biblical Studies 2016.

Schoeman, Roy H. Salvation is from the Jews (John 4: 22): The Role of Judaism in Salvation         History from Abraham to the Second Coming. Ignatius Press, 2003.

[1] Called the Peshat level in Judaism. The other levels or senses are Remetz (analogical), Drash (moral or homelitical) and Sod (anagogical or mystical)

[2] James DG Dunn. "The new perspective on Paul." HTS Theological Studies 64, no. 4 (2008): 1956-1958 .

[3] Roy H. Schoeman. Salvation is from the Jews (John 4: 22): The Role of Judaism in Salvation History from Abraham to the Second Coming. Ignatius Press, 2003.

[4] Harvey Falk. Jesus the Pharisee: A new look at the Jewishness of Jesus. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2003.

[5] Pawel Maciejko believes Emden drew this conclusion from an earlier Jewish work written by David Nasi in 1430. David Nasi was the brother of the famous Joseph Nasi, Duke of Naxos.

[6] Acts 16:3

[7] Robert E Dunham, “Between text and sermon: Philemon 1:1-25”.  In Interpretation: A Journal of Bible and Theology; Richmond Vol. 52, Iss. 2,  (Apr 1998): 191-194.

[8] Joseph A Marchal. "The Usefulness of an Onesimus: The Sexual Use of Slaves and Paul's Letter to Philemon." Journal of Biblical Literature 130, no. 4 (2011): 749-770.

[9] John 8:4

[10] Apostle Philemon on OrthodoxWiki

[11] See verses 8-9

[12] Verses 8-9

[13] Raymond Edward Brown, , Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland Edmund Murphy, eds. The new Jerome biblical commentary. (Prentice Hall, 1990), 869-870.

[14] Perceived as sinful to Jews and Christians but not to the pagan Greeks and Romans of the Empire and possibly less so to the Hellenistic Jews especially those who had assimilated the most to Greek and Roman culture among the wealthy upper class which Philemon may have belonged.

[15] Philemon 1:2

[16] F. Forrester Church. "Rhetorical structure and design in Paul's letter to Philemon." Harvard Theological Review 71, no. 1-2 (1978): 17-33.

[17] Carolyn Osiek. "Philemon." In The Catholic Study Bible. Oxford Biblical Studies 2016.

[18] Apostle Philemon on OrthodoxWiki

[19] Chris Frilingos. “‘For My Child, Onesimus’: Paul and Domestic Power in Philemon." Journal of Biblical Literature119, no. 1 (2000): 91-104.

[20] Scott S. Elliott. “‘Thanks, but no thanks’”: Tact, Persuasion and the Negotiation of Power in Paul’s Letter to Philemon.” New Testament Studies 57 (2011): 51-64.

[21] Robert E Dunham, “Between text and sermon: Philemon 1:1-25”, 191-194.

[22] Matthew 10:16

[23] I Corinthians 9:22

Sunday, April 01, 2018

The Blue Moon and the Month of flowers: Don Bosco and 2026

"These things shall inexorably come to pass, all in succession.

"Things follow too slowly upon each other, but the great Queen of Heaven is at hand; the Lord's power is Hers. Like mist She shall scatter Her enemies. She shall vest the Venerable Old Man [Pope] with all his former garments.

"There shall yet come a violent hurricane. Iniquity is at an end, sin shall cease, and before two full moons shall have shone in the month of flowers, the rainbow of peace shall appear on the earth.

"The great Minister shall see the Bride of his King clothed in glory.

"Throughout the world a sun so bright shall shine as was never seen since the flames of the Cenacle until today, nor shall it be seen again until the end of time."Prophecy of St John Bosco in 1870.

This prophecy speaks of a future two moons in one month which is what is known as a blue moon. This year (2018) we had two blue moons in January and March with no new moon in February. The next time we have this will be in 2037. Some people have speculated that the month of flowers is in March others think that the month of flowers refers to May. I personally think May is the likely candidate for the month of flowers.

The next blue moon that occurs in May is in 2026. It would seem that this month of a blue moons is preceded by a rainbow of peace. Thus it seems to be alluding to the fact that the great hurricane or tribulation and chastisement will be completed before May 2026. The prophecy in the first part speaks of the problems of France and then the rise of the man who will become the Great Monarch and of the Venerable Old Man of Rome (Lazio) who will anoint him as the New Holy Roman Emperor. 

If the seven years of tribulation ends before May 2026 then the first year of the tribulation may be in 2019. Thus if the tribulation year starts with the Jewish festival of Rosh ha Shanah (Jewish New Year) then it may start on the 9th of September 2018. If it begins on the religious new year of Nisan 1 then it will begin on April 6 2019.

Don Bosco states that the war will begin in the south and peace will come from the north. He then moves on to discuss the fate of France and Paris and then Rome. It is after these things that the warrior Prince will arise and become allied with the Pope. The prophecy also alludes to the imprisonment of the Pope. This prophecy also alludes to the Rabbis (Chair of Moses) leading their Jewish flock into better spiritual pastures due to the tribulations occurring with the Catholic bishops (shepherds) and flocks.

"War will come from the south, peace from the north.

"The laws of France no longer recognize the Creator. The Creator will reveal Himself by visiting her three times with the scourge of His wrath. The first time He will destroy her pride by defeat, pillage, and destruction of crops, cattle, and men. On His second visit the great whore of Babylon, which the faithful grievingly call Europe's brothel, shall lose her leader and fall prey to chaos.

"Paris! Paris! Instead of fortifying yourself with the Lord's name, you surround yourself with houses of ill repute. You yourself shall destroy them; your idol, the Pantheon, will be razed to the ground, so that it may truthfully be said that 'iniquity has lied to itself.' [Ps. 26,12] Your enemies will plunge you into anguish, famine, terror, and the contempt for My law, says the Lord.

"On My third visit, you shall fall under the foreign yoke. From afar your enemies will see your palaces in flames, your home in ruins, soaked in the blood of your heroes who are no more.

"But behold, a great warrior from the north appears, a banner in his right hand, his arm bearing this inscription: 'Irresistible is the hand of the Lord.' At that moment the Venerable Old Man of Rome went forward to meet him, wielding a flaming torch. The banner then grew larger and its blackness became white as snow; in its center stood out the name of the Almighty in golden letters.

"The warrior and his followers bowed profoundly to the Venerable Old Man and joined hands with him.

"Now the voice of Heaven is addressed to the Shepherd of Shepherds.  You are in solemn conference with your co-workers but the enemy of good never stands idle. He cunningly plots and sets all his wiles against you. He will sow discord among your helpers and will rear enemies among My sons. The powers of the world shall vomit fire. They would love to smother My words in the throats of the guardians of My law, but they shall not succeed. They shall do much harm, but only to themselves. Hurry! If knots cannot be untied, sever them. Do not halt in the face of difficulties, but go forth until the hydra of error has been beheaded. At this blow earth and hell shall tremble, but he world will be saved and the faithful shall exult. Gather around you only two co-workers, yet wherever you go, carry on the task entrusted to you and bring it to completion. Days go by swiftly and your years are reaching their appointed number, but the great Queen shall always assist you, and, as in the past, She shall always be magnum et singulare in Ecclesia praesidium [the powerful, prodigious defense of the Church].

"But you, O Italy, land of blessings, who has plunged you into desolation? Not your enemies, but your own friends. Do you not hear your children begging for the bread of faith, unable to find one to break it for them? What shall I do? I shall strike the shepherds and scatter the sheep so that those who sit upon the chair of Moses may seek better pastures and their flock may gently listen and be fed. 

"But My hand shall be heavy upon both flock and shepherds. Famine, plague, and war shall cause mothers to mourn the blood of their sons and husbands shed on foreign soil. 

"What shall befall you, ungrateful, effeminate, proud Rome? You have reached a point when you seek and admire nought in your sovereign but luxury, forgetting that both your glory and his lies on Golgotha. Now he is old, frail, defenseless, and dispossessed. Nevertheless, though captive, his words cause the whole world to tremble.

"O Rome! Four times shall I come to you! The first time I shall smite your regions and its people. The second time I shall bring slaughter and destruction to your very gates. Should not that make you open your eyes? A third time shall I come, and I will demolish your defenses and defenders. At My Father's command, terror, dismay, and desolation will reign.

"My wise followers flee, but My law is still trod underfoot. Therefore, I shall come a fourth time. Woe to you if My law again shall go unheeded. There shall be defections among both learned and ignorant. Your blood and that of your children shall wipe out your transgressions. 

"War, plague, and famine are the scourges to smite human pride and malice. Where are your magnificent villas and palaces, you people of wealth? They have become the litter of squares and streets!

"And you priests, why are you not prostrate between the vestibule and the altar, weeping and praying that the scourge may cease? Why do you not take up the shield of faith and preach My Word from the rooftops, in the houses, streets, and squares, and even in inaccessible places? Do you not know that this is the terrible two-edged sword which smites My enemies and placates the wrath of God and man?"

Does this prophecy allude to the three wars that will hit France and Italy? The first one referring to World War One and the second to World War Two and the third to World War Three in which France is invaded by the Muslims. It would seem the visitations of Rome also refer to the Three World Wars but Rome has a fourth visitation. The third occurs in the first part of the tribulation period and the fourth in the second period of the tribulation.

It is only after the destruction of Paris by fire in the third visitation  that the Great Monarch will take leadership. It is interesting that Don Bosco refers to the Pope as having a flaming torch. The Jewish term for a Pope is Apifyor which is connected to the concept of one who leads with a flaming torch.

Thursday, March 29, 2018

A Jewish sub-Kingdom in Medieval Scotland: DF105 y-dna

Many of us have read the fascinating book “When Scotland Was Jewish” which reveals some of the hidden Jewish history of Scotland over the last 800 years. In past blogs I have also written much about this hidden Jewish History of Scotland over the last two thousand years or more. I have discussed the role of the real life dark haired Jewish beauty Rebecca or Rae who Sir Walter Scott’s Jewish Rebecca draws on while set in an early period of Scottish and English history. 

This real life Rebecca was the illegitimate Jewish half-sister of Lady Margaret of Flanders. Margaret of Flanders was the wife of the heir to the Scottish throne Prince Alexander MacAlexander and her half-sister Rebecca was his mistress and the mother of his illegitimate children. After the young death of Prince Alexander, Rebecca (or Rae) married firstly Uilleam Earl of Sutherland and then secondly Angus I Mor ( b.1235 d.1296) the 3rd Lord of the Isles (r.1256-1296) as his second wife. Her son by Prince Alexander was Isaac MacRae (also known as MacRath) whose Gaelic name was Iain Alisdair and the English version was John Alexander. He was also known as MacRath Amuligane. Rebecca’s daughter Mariota married Angus I's son Alexander by his first wife Juliana. Rebecca’s other daughter Isobel or Yochabel Alexander married firstly Edward the Bruce High King of Ireland and then Sir John the 3rd Laird of Lamont.

Rebecca was also known as Reine or Reyna which means Queen. Her mother Yochabed or Yochabel was the Flemish Jewish Reyna or Queen who was the Jewish mistress of Count Gui de Dampierre of Flanders. Some of the anti-Jewish Christians referred to these Jewish Queens as Jezebels and Isabella was a popular name of females of this dynasty. Rebecca or Rae was the first Scottish Reine or Reyna and her daughter Isabella (Yochabel) was the second. Thus these Dark Jewish Queens were sometimes married to the Dark Kings but were a separate institution within the Jewish community of Scotland. The third Dark Reine or Rae was Mary Isabella Lamont the granddaughter of Rebecca. 

There was also another lineage known as the Fair or White Jewish Queens Malcah Bahira who descended from the red and blonde haired fair skinned Khazar Princesses who came to Scotland in the 11th century. The word used for them was a wordplay or pun on the Hebrew word Bahir for fair and the name of the Khazar state of Bihar in Hungary (Transylvania). These blonde or Fair Queens descended from Princess Adiva a daughter of King Alfred the Great of England and Wessex. She married the Khazar King Menachem who was also known as Menumarot as the Ruler of Bihar.

The Scottish Gaelic version of Rebecca is Beathag or Bethoc. Rebecca as Beathag de Gui in translation became reversed as Giles de Burgh and it is most probable that Rebecca married as the third wife to James Stewart the 5th High Steward of Scotland (d.1309). Others have incorrectly identified his wife as Egidia a daughter of Walter de Bourgh. Rebecca was the mother of Walter Stewart the 6th High Steward of Scotland (b.1297 d.1326). It is believed that Rebecca outlived her son Walter (Vidal or Chaim). James Stewart's mother Lady Jean of the Isles was a Jewish Princess of the Isles the daughter of Prince or Lord James (Jacob) of the Isles (descended from the Khazar Scottish Jewish King Shlomo (Somerled/Sorley/ Solomon) of the Isles) and his wife also a Scottish Jewish Khazar Princess Ragnhild (Rachel) of the Isles. Thus Rebecca was the grandmother of the crypto-Jewish Catholic King Robert II Stewart of Scotland. 

Like the Rebecca recounted in the Ivanhoe story of Sir Walter Scott, the real life Rebecca left Scotland with one of her daughters for Granada sometime after the death of her husband James in 1309. Her daughter Lady Alice (Ailis) Stewart (she took the Muslim name of A'isha) married a Muslim prince Ismail who would become the Sultan of Granada. Rebecca's grandson by Ismail was Yusuf I (also known as Abu-I-Hayyay) of Granada b.1318. Like Scott's Rebecca it is possible that Rebecca left Scotland due to accusations of witchcraft as she was known like her grandson Yusuf of Granada to have prophetic and healing powers. Nasr the crypto-Jewish Muslim Sultan of Granada (d.1322) married Rebecca around 1310 and built her the Torre de la Reine. It later became known as the Torre Abu-I-Hayyay before once again having a name change in the reign of Charles V and being known by a variant of its original name - Peinador de la Reina. Her daughter Miriam (Mariam) by Nasr left Granada after the death of her father and lived in Portugal where she took the name Maria Anes and married the Commander  or Governor of Santarem - Soeiro Mendes Petite. One of her daughters called Constance married Pedro the illegitimate son of King Peter III (Pedro) the Great of Aragon and his Jewish mistress Inez. Another daughter Maria married Estavao Perez Coelho a troubadour. The Catholic Princess Isabella of Portugal the wife of Charles V was descended on her direct maternal line from Maria and thus from Rebecca (Rae or Reine) the Dark Jewish Queen of Scots.

In a past post I speculated that the name of Amuligane or Molegan came from the Hebrew haMelekh haKatan which means “the Little King”, however it could also be haMelekh haKohen which means the Priest King or from HaMelekh Khaghan. Another possibility is HaMelekh haKeheh which means the Dark King. Hakeheh means the dark one. This title of the Dark King may have referred to the dark hair and skin of Isaac that he had inherited from his mother. This is the reason that this family were associated with the name Dubh (dark or black in Gaelic) or Duncan (a dark or brown warrior) and Maurice (meaning dark skinned or swarthy in Latin). Some of the anti-Semites of the time used this name in alluding to the Jewish king as the offspring of the dark one or Satan. 

The title Amuligane developed into the surnames Milliken and Mulligan and other variants. The emblem of this Royal Family was the Red Rampant Lion of the House of David representing the Royal Lion of Judah. This was used to demonstrate their descent from Alexander II and Alexander III Kings of Scotland who first used this emblem in its present form as the Royal Scottish Standard and thus claiming Royal Davidic descent from both David I of Scots and King David of Israel. King David I of Scotland would seem to have been the first Scottish King to use the emblem of the Rampant Lion. He was perceived by many Jews as a Messianic Davidic figure and through St Margaret he was of Royal Khazar Jewish ancestry. The Milliken coat of arms has three rampant lions which are red but originally the three were different colours of red, blue and black (sable). The Red Rampant Lion represented the Royal House of the Khazar Jews and the Scottish Kings of the House of Atholl-Dunkeld, the Blue Rampant Lion represented the Lion of Judah and the House of David and the Black Rampant Lion the Counts of Flanders and the Royal House of the Rhadanite Jews.

After the death of Prince Alexander, Rebecca fled north to her relatives in Moray and then married the Lord of the Isles. These relatives like Rebecca were descended from the Khazar Royal Kings called Khagan which had in Flanders been adapted to Kohen. Rebecca belonged to the Flemish branch of the Khazar Royal line. I have written in other blogs about the arrival of the Khazar Royal Warriors to Scotland so I will not repeat that now. Isaac was soon given lands in the area of Dumfries and Galloway and had a certain protection as the step-son of the Lord of the Isles. He later became allied with Robert the Bruce through his marriage to Robert's sister Lady Margaret Bruce.

Rebecca who was also known as haMalcah haKehah (the Dark Queen) was considered the leader or Queen of the Jews of Scotland and the Isles. Malca Kehah was the origin of the MacKay name and her son Isaac is also known as Iye Mor MacKay in the MacKay genealogies. Isaac I's son Daniel MacIsaac was also known as Donald MacKaheh or MacKay. Daniel married the MacHeth or McEth heiress. Rebecca was the true 1st Chieftain[ess] of MacKay. Rebecca’s father Count Gui de Dampierre was known as Guy de Cahan in the Scottish genealogies. Some of her descendants also took the name of MacGui (MacGhie) or MacGee. Mary MacGee married into the MacDevitt family and their son John took the MacGee (MacKee) surname and was the ancestor of the ZZ36 y-dna haplogroup. Gui's original Jewish name was Gershon. His mistress and the mother of Rebecca was a descendant of Rabbi Isaac of Dampierre (b.1120). However his name of Gui was connected to his nickname in Hebrew of Keheh (Dark one). Gui's coat of arms was a sable or dark rampant Lion which he wore on his surcoat. Rebecca’s son Angus II Og MacDonald, by her husband Angus I, became the 5th Lord of the Isles after the death of his half-brother Alexander II Og MacDonald in 1299.

Rebecca’s son Isaac was revered as being a Jew who was also the son of the last male heir of the older Scottish Dynasty of Dunkeld-Atholl. He was perceived as a Jewish sub or under King over those Jews who still practiced Judaism in quiet and private ways in Scotland, even those of Jewish origin who were members of the Catholic Church revered Isaac as a kind of mystical Davidic priest-king. He became the second Earl of Sutherland under the name of Uilleam or William on the death of his mother's relative Uilleam (Gilleoin) or William de Moravia the first Earl of Sutherland when he was a small child. The names of Isaac and William had first been connected when Isaac Kalonymus became known as Isaac Gellone and then Gellone became associated with William (Guillaume/ Guilelmus) in 8th century Septimania. Isaac's uncle Nathan Kalonymus (Gellone) was also called Guillaume de Gellone or William of Orange.
The first Earl of Sutherland may have been Rebecca's first husband who she married in 1283-4 after the death of Prince Alexander. It was after Uilleam's death in 1286 that she married Angus Mor MacDonald Lord of the Isles. 
Isaac I MacRae (b.1282 d.1314) was succeeded in 1314 as Scots King of the Jews (or the Dark King) by his son Keheh I MacIsaac (or Kahan I) whose Gaelic name was Angus Dubh Alisdair (also known as Maurice MacRae or MacRath). In 1320 he succeeded his half-uncle Angus II as Angus III MacAlexander the 6th Lord of the Isles (r.1320-1330). Angus may have been the the Earl of Sutherland from 1314 under the name of Uilleam or William (Gillanders). He has been often confused by historians with his half-uncle of the same name of Angus. His wife was known as Agnes MacDonald Cahan and she was the daughter of Alexander II MacDonald and Lady Mariota Alexander of the Isles (the daughter of Rebecca). Keheh I (Angus) had a brother Gershon MacIsaac who was also known as Gilbert de Insula who was granted lands in Menstrie in 1330. Another brother Chanan MacIsaac was known as Kenneth de Moravia the 4th Earl of Sutherland. His nephew Chanan MacKeheh was also called Kenneth (Kenzie) the 1st Mackenzie Lord of Kintail. He was the Mackenzie ancestor of the R1b M222 DF104 ZZ55 y-dna haplogroup.

Keheh I MacIsaac was succeeded as the Scots Jewish King by his son Isaac II Pharez MacKeheh (b.1320 d.1387) who was also known as Iain Alisdair or John Alexander as well as John MacRath or MacRae. His half-cousin John MacDonald of Islay the son of Angus II Og macDonald had succeeded his father as Lord of the Isles in 1330. On his half-cousin’s death he married his widow Amy Ruiari (MacRory) and became the 8th Lord of the Isles as John II MacAlexander (MacAlisdair) in 1345. He married a second time to Princess Margaret Stewart the daughter of King Robert II Stewart. Robert II’s wife Elizabeth Mure, the mother of Princess Margaret, was a maternal granddaughter of Isaac I and his wife Lady Margaret Bruce (who may have quietly embraced Judaism on her marriage to Isaac I). It is most likely Isaac II (aka John Alexander Lord of the Isles) who was the founder and ancestor of R1b M222 DF105 y-dna.

Isaac II as John II Alexander Lord of the Isles continued his cousin's support of Robert Stewart. In 1366 when King David II tried to raise a tax for his ransom, John rebelled and held out the longest. In a Treaty in 1369 John was reconciled to King David. King Robert II however decided to divide and conquer by granting certain parts of the Kingdom of the Isles to be inherited by the step-children of John (the children of his first wife Amie by his cousin John I McDonald) and the rest to John's own children by Princess Margaret Stewart. He was succeeded as Lord of the Isles by his son Donald.

Around this time there seemed to be an increase of the rate of mutations in the y-dna with the advent of the Little Ice Age due to cataclysmic events in the southern and possibly western hemispheres around 1320 and then again in 1530 and 1605 thus deepening the effects of the Little Ice Age. Isaac II was succeeded as Scots King of the Jews by his son Keheh II Mac Isaac who was also known as Hugh Alexander (Aodh Alisdair) as well as Dubh or Duncan McRae as well as Maurice MacRath. Keheh II as his name suggests was dark haired and olive skinned and his wife Lady Margaret McKay was blonde with fair skin and was known as Mariota Fionna (Margaret the Fair). Margaret was the Fair or White Jewish Queen (Malcah Bahira / Banrigh Fionn/ Rigain Fionn). Two of their sons Angus (Keheh) and Gilbert (Gershon) had the dark looks of their father and were known as MacDubh. Two of the sons Christopher (Chaim) and John (Isaac III MacKeheh) had the fair looks of their mother and were known as MacFinlay.

Keheh II (Kahan II) was the founder and ancestor of R1b M222 FGC4133 y-dna. Hugh or Keheh II had been chosen to succeed his father as his older brothers embraced the Catholic Church. His younger brother Marcus (aka Moses) also remained a Jew and some of his descendants were also known as Amuligane as the Dark Jewish King. Marcus married the Jewess Amy McDonald who was a maternal great granddaughter of Rebecca through the Campbell and Lamont families. Keheh II's brother Donald was the 9th Lord of the Isles and the founder of R1b M222 S588 y-dna. He was succeeded by his brother Alexander III MacAlexander Lord of the Isles who married Lady Mary Lennox and his son Alexander the 1st Baron of Menstrie was the ancestor of R1b M222 A259 and A260 y-dna and his other son John MacAlexander was the ancestor of R1b M222 DF85 y-dna.

It would seem that the descendants of Gershon MacKeheh (Gilbert Grierson) and Isaac III MacKeheh claimed the Amuligane or HaMelekh HaKeheh position or title and from about 1500 it started to be used as a surname by some descendants of both brothers. It would seem that Isaac III Keheh was succeeded as Amuligane by his son Keheh III MacIsaac (Cuthbert MacRath Amuligane)[b.1410 d.1462] who was succeeded by the grandson of Gilbert Grierson called Gershon I MacVedast (Gilbert Grierson Amuligane) [b.1443 d.1472]. Gershon I was succeeded by Keheh IV MacGershon (Cuthbert Amuligane) [b.1450 d.1485] a grandson of Keheh III. He was succeeded byTam I MacGershom (Thomas Amuligane son of William Grierson) [b.1449 d.1495]. He was succeeded by Pharez I MacPharez (Fergus Amuligane) [b.1475 d.1538] of Blackmyre. Pharez's I's grandfather was John MacRath (Isaac Pharez) who was the son of  Marcus (Moses) MacRath who was the son of Isaac II MacKeheh Amuligane (aka John Alexander Lord of the Isles). Pharez I was succeeded by his son Isaac IV MacPharez (John MacRath Amuligane) [b.1496 d.1547] and he was succeeded by his brother-in-law Keheh V MacReuben (Cuthbert Grierson Amuligane son of Robert Grierson) and his son William Amuligane was probably the last of the Jewish kinglets and the name just became a surname after his time. However they may have continued as secret Jewish Kings or the Amuligane until around the early 17th century

Isaac IV's relative Abraham MacPharez (aka Alexander Frew) b.1510 a great-grandson of Isaac Pharez MacMoses (aka John Fergus MacRath) became the ancestor of the Farew or Frew family of Ayrshire (Kilwinning). Abraham's grandfather may have moved from the Blackmyre region of Nithsdale to Perth in the north and from there the Frew family branched out to Kilwinning and Kilsyth and the area Gargunnock and the Fords of Frew which was named after this family. However it may not have been Nithsdale that the Frew's moved from but further north of Perth from the Glen Tilt area that they moved to Perth while the MacRath/Amuligane branch moved to Blackmyre. Isaac IV's son Isaac MacIsaac (John Mullikine) was the belonged to Z44996 y-dna. His grandson Chanan (Kenneth Mullikine) was the ancestor of A822 Y-dna.

The fourth Dark Jewish Rae or Reine (Queen) was Helena Campbell (b.1348) the daughter of Lady Mary Isabella Lamont (b.1318 d.1364). The fifth Queen was Lady Amy McDonald of Islay the daughter of Helena Campbell. Amy was the wife of Marcus (Moses) MacRath whose brother was the Amuligane or Dark Jewish King. Amy's daughter Isabella MacRath married Isaac III MacKeheh.

The mysterious figures of Rae (Rebecca), the MacIsaac family and the Amuliganes reveal a rich hidden Jewish history of Scotland. When I was younger I often heard of the Scots being referred to as the Jews of the North.  Cecil Roth in his writings sought to explain this Jewish input into Scotland by suggesting that many children from English Jewish families had their children taken off them in the Medieval period and sent North to the border region of Scotland and England. However it was the input from the Khazars (MacDonald) Kings or Lords of the Isles (of R1a y-dna) and the Flemish Jews of Flanders that were the major source of hidden Jews in Scotland. It was the MacDonald Clan that was the overarching shield of these various Jewish families and then the MacKay (Ikey Mo) Clan that had its origin within this MacDonald Clan among some of the descendants of Rebecca and Isaac.

It is also important to note that these Flemish Jews that are the ancestors of Rebecca's parents are not only those of Khazar ancestry who most likely enter Flanders from the Khazar kingdoms of the Isles and Moray (Moravia) in northern Scotland but of their intermarriage with the Rhadanite Jews of Flanders and France which may have a link to the Rhodan and Synklar Jews of Calalus who also arrived in Western Europe in the 10th century. This is a further area of study and research that will reveal more of the hidden Davidic, Jewish and Jewish Catholic history of Europe and the world which was hidden or obscured firstly by Gentile Catholics and Christians as well as Rabbinic Jews and later by the modernists in academia and science.

Among certain groups there are those that argue vigorously for certain ancestry for their families or nationalities. The reality is that those today who are Scottish or Irish and their more recent descendants in other countries are not purely Norwegian, Gaelic, Norman, Pictish, English, Flemish, French or Jewish but they are descended from all these groups no matter what origin the direct y-dna or the direct mt-dna reveals. It is not just those with the y-dna R1b M222 DF105 and mt-dna J1b1a1 that descend from Rebecca and her sons and daughters but those of many different haplogroups that they intermarried with so that today probably most Scottish people and probably most Irish and English people descend from Rebecca in some manner. This does not mean all these people are Jewish but it does mean they have some ancestors that were Jewish. Some of Rebecca's descendants very quickly became Catholics but these Catholics still retained their Jewish halakhic identity for 10 generations if it was on a direct maternal lineage after leaving the Jewish community. Others maintained in family and hidden groups their Jewish identity until at least the 17th or 18th century before assimilating into the Christian population.


New Subclades of R1b M222+ ydna: The Scottish Sons of Isaac (DF104)

Guy de Dampierre and the mystery of Rebecca: A Scottish Tale